For bottom loading of road tankers at terminals with diesel, heating oil and gasoline it is common to use DN 100 mm hose assemblies which are permanently filled ( wet hose service ). For decades Elaflex ‘Yellow Band’ TW hoses have set the standard for this application.Read more
- Oil processing plant
- The Oil process
- How is oil processed?
- Oil production process
- Oil processing companies
- Oil extraction process
- Oil drilling process
Oil processing plant
Typical oil well production fluids are a mixture of oil, gas and produced water. The oil processing plant (also known as an oil production plant) is a plant that processes production fluids from oil wells in order to separate out saleable products and dispose of the rest in an environmentally friendly manner.
Oil processing commonly occurs offshore on platforms (many permanent offshore installations have full oil production facilities), to reduce the products volatility and remove all contaminants i.e. water and sand. These can prove problematic during transport, whether by ship or subsea pipeline.
Crude oil needs to be processed before it can be used. Three main types of operation are performed to refine the oil into finished products:
In the first step, molecules are separated through atmospheric distillation (i.e. at normal atmospheric pressure, also known as topping), according to their molecular weight. The oil is treated with heat to high temperatures of up to 400 degree Celsius.
Oil residuals will remain at the bottom as they are the heavy molecules and will not vaporize. During the first stage of the separation, light molecules rise to the top while it is vaporized. The temperature at the top is only 150 degrees. When conversion of the oil happens you will find a lot of hydrogen and carbon present. Crude oil consists of loads of hydrocarbons as do petroleum products and natural gas.
In the conversion process, heavier molecules can be converted, or "cracked," into the lighter products for which there is higher demand. Modern techniques also facilitate the joining of smaller hydrocarbons into larger ones, called unification, as well as the rearrangement of molecules through a process called alkylation.
During this process, the heat is increased even higher at 500 degrees and now a catalyst is added as well in order for chemical reaction to speed up significantly.
It should be noted that during each step including conversion that it as costly and if the complexity increase it will increase energy use as well as costs.
During oil refining treatment stage three which is treating it, it is done in order to remove any and all unwanted contaminants from the end product. It is a very important step as too little refining could cause increased pollution.
During this process, you will be able to determine the improved air quality after emissions with less sulfur coming from refined petroleum products, sour natural gas and smoke. Standards across the world are stringent in regards to refined oil use.
How is oil processed
Oil is processed in a petroleum refinery (or oil refinery), an industrial process plant where the crude oil is refined into useful products, such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil, jet fuel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), heating oils, and feedstock for the chemical industry.
Petroleum refineries are very large industrial complexes that involve many different processing units and auxiliary facilities such as utility units and storage tanks. Each refinery has its own unique arrangement and combination of refining processes largely determined by the refinery location, desired products and economic considerations. There are no two refineries that are identical in every respect.
Oil production process
The oil production process is the process of extracting the hydrocarbons and separating the mixture of liquid hydrocarbons, gas, water, and solids, removing the elements that are non-saleable, and selling the liquid hydrocarbons and gas.
Oil processing companies
Oil processing companies encompass the equipment between the oil wells and the pipeline or other transportation system. The purpose of an oil processing plant is to make the oil ready for sale to the purchaser's standards (maximum allowable water, salt, and other impurities).
Oil extraction process
Crude oil is found in the depths of the Earth. It is brought to the surface with the aid of sophisticated machinery and complex processes. The oil extraction process is the process by which usable petroleum is drawn out from beneath the earth's surface location. Once a potential accumulation of crude has been discovered, it is analyzed for commercial purposes; whether the accumulation can be produced profitably or not.
Oil drilling process
If the accumulation pass the commerciality tests, a hole is drilled into the Earth up to the depth where the accumulation is situated. This involves the use of a drilling rig, drill bits and various chemicals used to control the process of drilling.
The rig is an assembly of components, and the most important component is the drill string. This component is actually a combination of various smaller devices and has a drill bit at the end, which is the tool used to dig into the earth.
During the process of drilling, a chemical mixture called as drilling fluid or mud is circulated through the drill string into the hole.
Once the presence of oil and/or gas is verified by studies, the hole is cemented and prepared for production. Casings of steel are lowered into the hole and cemented in place, to prevent damage to the surrounding and ensure smooth flow of the oil to the surface.
Once casings and surface facilities are installed, the bottom hole is perforated or punctured. Due to a pressure difference between the formation and bottom hole, oil will begin flowing from the rocks and travel to the surface. When oil stops flowing of its own accord, certain techniques are applied to extract oil from the ground. These techniques are called Improved Oil Recovery (IOR) and Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques. When no more oil can be produced from the well, the hole is closed with cement and abandoned.
This is the general method of crude oil extraction. There are many factors which influence the extraction of crude oil, but all wells follow the same process stated earlier.
Articles about Oil Processing
Magnetrol® recently visited the second largest oil refinery in California. The facility produces roughly 270,000 BPD. It primarily produces gasoline, jet fuel and diesel, in addition to propylene gas and CO2.Read more